In Brazil, there are almost ten million people relying on traditional use of biomass for cooking, which correspond to about five percent of the country's population. The vast majority lives in poor municipalities away from urban centers. The replacement of fuelwood for LPG is the result of an intense urbanization process and governmental intervention based on price regulation and subsidies. In 2015, the energy demand for cooking in the Brazilian households was 46 TJ, LPG covered 51% of the demand and the remaining 49% relied on fuelwood to supply the demand for energy. This study shows that there are enormous variations in the level of consumption and the types of fuels used due to the regional complexity of Brazil. In addition, it also shows the transition from fuelwood for cooking to modern fuels such as LPG does follow a consistent pattern in Brazil. Decisions related to energy consumption and fuel type are strongly influenced by accessibility, affordability and the convenience of the fuel.
Cogeneration from sugarcane bagasse in Jamaica represents a significant opportunity to reduce CO2 emissions and its dependence on a fossil fuel-based energy matrix. Generation of electricity through cogeneration is a huge opportunity in countries where the sugarcane industry is in decline. This article draws on the findings of a case-study on electricity generation through cogeneration in Jamaica to provide some key messages that may be useful for policy-makers and the private sector to make electricity generation by cogeneration a more competitive option the for investors.
To this end, this article analyses two scenarios: the first is a Baseline Scenario that assesses the impact of cogeneration technology already installed in a Jamaican sugarcane company where the cogeneration stage produces 2,2 MW; the second one considers that the cogeneration technology is changed to a new biomass based power plant upgrading the cogeneration stage in order to produce 5 MW of power from bagasse. The assessment was carried out by using a complete Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Costing and Social Life Cycle Assessment. The results revealed that generation of electricity from cogeneration derived from bagasse is a suitable alternative adding economic, environmental and social value.
Household biogas digesters are a sustainable technology that can help rural families of low income countries meeting their basic energy needs and improving their standard of living. However, household biogas digester programmes are often promoted without any systematic planning which might help to overcome several challenges for household digesters dissemination (e.g. lack of stakeholders’ involvement, investment cost, technology reliability and durability, lack of site-specific designs). The aim of this study is to develop and validate, for the first time, a multi-criteria decision support tool for the assessment of household biogas digester programmes in rural areas of Latin America. The method is divided into three decision levels. First of all, the rural communities where household digesters may be implemented are evaluated and prioritized. Secondly, the most appropriate digester model (i.e. masonry or plastic tubular digester) is selected. Finally, the most appropriate household digester design (e.g. volume, materials) is identified considering local conditions and beneficiaries’ needs. For that, a set of technical, environmental and socio-economic criteria were defined and weighted by stakeholders at all the decision levels. Furthermore, the tool was validated using three case studies dealing with the implementation of household anaerobic digesters in rural areas of the Peruvian Andes in order to show how it can assist non-profit organizations designing sustainable and successful biogas digester programmes.
This document presents the results of an analysis of the key sustainability certification systems applicable to biomass and bioenergy. A review was made of the state-of-the-art sustainability frameworks at the international level. The improvements that have been made in these standards in recent years to reduce social, environmental and economic impacts were identified. In addition, it was determined how some of the initiatives analyzed were implemented in a country such as Colombia, where the establishment of a bio-based economy is being carried out. It was noted that most of the certification systems analyzed have been updated in the last two years. The main adjustments made to the standards are based on criteria developed by the European Commission through the Renewable Energy Directive (EU2015/1513). For environmental issues, it was found that the key update was the inclusion of the indirect land-use change (ILUC). Another key issue addressed is the obligation to calculate and publish the GHG emissions generated annually. Social issues have increased the focus on food security of the population regarding local areas of influence such as the price of the family food basket and food supply. Regarding economic issues, the requirement for a business plan is highlighted to contribute to the economic viability of a certified company. Colombia is one of the countries in the world where the basic conditions support a future sustainable bio-based products sector. Not only does the country have a large amount of land suitable for cultivation, but the land does not require the forests deforestation. However, it must be borne in mind that in a megadiverse country like Colombia, a joint effort (integration) is required between the application of strict laws for the protection of natural resources and the use of certification systems for sustainable products.
Over 80% of rural households in Peru use solid fuels as their primary source of domestic energy, which contributes to several health problems. In 2016, 6.7 million Peruvians were living in rural areas. The Fondo de Inclusión Social Energético (FISE) LPG Promotion Program, which began in 2012 and is housed under the Ministry of Energy and Mining, is a government-sponsored initiative aimed at reducing use of solid fuels by increasing access to clean fuel for cooking to poor Peruvian households.
This paper presents an assessment of alternative, long-term energy supply strategies for the Ethiopian power sector, during 2015–2045, using the MARKAL energy system model. This study also identifies alternative, sustainable energy supply options to meet Ethiopia's rising demand for energy, while also achieving the policy goals of universal electrification, zero greenhouse gas emissions, increased electricity exports, and improved energy security. In all scenarios, the results show a large potential for renewable energy technologies, such as hydropower, solar PV and wind. These technologies have implications for neighboring countries in the region and will also affect the agriculture sector in Ethiopia. Hydropower, for example, is a renewable energy source that can contribute to rural electrification, while also providing water to support irrigation expansion. An alternative policy scenario prioritizing renewable energy technologies reduces dependence on fossil fuel completely at minimal cost, while providing long-term environmental benefits. Expansion of electricity access to the entire population entails large investments in power generation capacity as well as substantial increases in the total system cost of energy production. Such a scenario would also increase the country's reliance on fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources. Most alternative policy options show higher investment costs will be required to achieve policy goals in the near term (with the exception of the export scenario). However, the analysis shows long-term benefits from investing in energy supply including sustainable energy system development, expansion of access to modern sources of energy, and the development of a low carbon society.
Developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, face large challenges to achieve universal electrification. Using the case of Ghana, this study explores the role that rice residues can play to help developing countries meet their electrification needs. In Ghana, Levelised Electricity Costs (LEC) of a grid-connected 5 MWe straw combustion plant ranged between 11.6 and 13.0 UScents/kWh, based on region of implementation. Rice straw combustion is a viable grid-connected option in all regions, as the bioenergy Feed-in-Tariff is 29.5 UScents/kWh in Ghana. Residue supply cost contributes significantly (49–54%) to LEC of rice straw combustion.
LEC of husk gasification mini-grids ranged between 5 and 53 UScents/kWh for rural populations between 3000 and 250 people. Husk gasification mini-grids can be a suitable electrification solution for these un-electrified populations, as its LEC is lower than the average LEC of grid extension diesel mini-grids and off-grid solar systems for remote communities in Ghana. Electricity produced from husk gasification has the potential to cater to 7% of the needs of un-electrified communities in Ghana. The methodology and analysis of this study can support policymakers of similar countries decide the economic feasibility of decentralised bioenergy solutions while forming national electrification plans.
Despite the historical priority to grid-based electrification in South Asia, two out of every five people in the region still live without access to electricity. Due to various limitations of conventional grid-based rural electrification, as brought out by a number of studies and reports, demand for alternative models such as renewable energy based off-grid and distributed generation solutions are gaining increasing attention globally. However, due to the absence of any study that could juxtapose these two modes in terms of their merits and demerits, it is difficult to infer on their relative superiority or inferiority. In view of that, this paper makes an attempt to connect the dots by carrying out an extensive review of the literature, to analyse the role of grid and off-grid options in facilitating rural electrification, and come out with a comparative assessment of their costs and impacts on the South Asian countries. The paper infers that instead of considering each of the modes of electrification in a standalone manner and perceiving them as mutually exclusive or competing with one another, as usually perceived in the policy sphere, off-grid electrification can actually be considered as a complementary mode and should ideally be integrated with grid expansion to serve the bigger cause of ensuring universal and sustainable rural electrification in South Asia.
Energy has become the main driver for development as industries grow, agricultural sectors become more modernized, economies boom and countries become wealthy. There are still vast majority of people living under the poverty line especially in the ECOWAS region. The purpose of this study is to explore how improvements in energy access can be a key driver in economic development and progress in the ECOWAS region. Data for the study was obtained from the database of the World Bank. A regression analysis was carried out to establish the relationships between energy access and development indicators. The paper suggests the need for policy makers in the ECOWAS region to focus on targets, such as household access, consumption of electricity, and ease of use instead on supply targets that focus merely on physical coverage. A case on how Ghana is improving energy access is presented.