Diversification is a process by which households increase the number of economic activities in different sectors to improve their well-being and chance of survival. The aim of this research is to study the determinants of livelihood diversification with a specific emphasis on wildlife watching in the coastal communities of Oaxaca, Mexico. Based on household surveys, two econometric models were used to examine the differences regarding the asset determinants for those households increasing the number of economic activities and those involved in wildlife tourism. The results reveal four common variables distributed between capitals and specify that average household age, environmental consciousness, characteristics of the land, membership or participation in an organization (cooperative) and government transfers are determinants of a household's diversification into wildlife tourism. Policy recommendations include focusing on households with young people, providing support for social capital and policy coherence to guarantee basic needs and tourism planning design.
The relationships between biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services (ES) are widely debated. However, it is still not clear how biodiversity conservation and ES interact with different strategies in and surrounding protected areas (PAs), the cornerstone for biodiversity conservation. Here, we present results on the interplay between biodiversity conservation and nature-based tourism (a cultural ES), while controlling for environmental and socioeconomic factors in and surrounding terrestrial PAs worldwide. Results indicate that nature-based tourism is more frequent in PAs that are of higher biodiversity, older, larger, more accessible from urban areas and at higher elevation. High population density surrounding PAs and national income levels are also major socioeconomic factors related to nature-based tourism. Furthermore, PAs managed mainly for biodiversity conservation have nearly 35% more visitors than those managed for mixed use. Strict management for biodiversity is also associated with increased biodiversity. These results show the importance of biodiversity in addressing nature-based tourism and suggest this interrelationship could be altered by different management strategies used by PAs.