The German government has proclaimed energy efficiency to be the ‘first imperative’ for the transformation of the energy system (‘Energiewende’). It has enacted numerous policy measures at federal, federal state and local level which combined should deliver the aspired energy savings. Our contribution reviews the German governance system (multi-level policy coordination and policy feedback through monitoring and verification of energy savings), including the full set of German Sustainable Energy Action Plans (SEAPs). We find that many of the SEAPs put emphasis on CO2 reduction but neglect a systematic monitoring and verification (M&V) of energy efficiency. A harmonised M&V scheme covering the relevant energy aggregates and energy savings can facilitate policy feedback. Designing the M&V system to the principle of cost-effectiveness can help to save costs and keep information provision and administrative burden in balance. Regarding policy coordination, the German case shows that strong formal coordination structures are a necessary condition for effective policy design, but not a sufficient one. They need to be backed up by informal coordination such as feedback loops or sharing of best practices to add a dynamic dimension.
Cities in Sub-Saharan Africa suffer from widespread disparities in water supply due to depletion in groundwater and global-warming-induced changes in weather patterns. The offset of water head from the design considerations of water pumping systems has increased energy requirements leading to worsening of the situation with respect to availability of energy and water. Consequently, highly capitalized water supply schemes, which have been designed to meet the demand, are underutilized leading to operational inefficiencies. Robust empirical equations can help detect inefficiencies in water pumping systems, and this paper discusses the equations which were developed by analysing data obtained from various water supply utilities facing water scarcity. These equations provide cost-benefit analysis for decision making in water utilities and can bring about energy efficiency in municipal pumping operations.