“Gender equality policies seeking to give women assets, particularly land, have often failed to achieve their goals. Explained as a failure of implementation and adequate resourcing, the deeper problem lies in using a segmented rather than holistic analytical framework that treats both assets and women as discrete, individual objects, rather than socially embedded and networked. Land gives meaning to people’s lives, it is more than a source of material wealth; hence access to land is coveted, contested and negotiated in multiple ways by differently positioned people.”
“This study investigated the relationship between women's disadvantage in mental health and physical functioning and gender differences in career backgrounds. Sexual division of labor persists and key career characteristics are overrepresented in women: low-skilled first job, downward occupational trajectory, interruptions. These interrelated characteristics are usually linked to poor health. Their overrepresentation in women may be related to the female-male health gap; however, it may not if overrepresentation transposed into substantially weaker associations with poor health outcomes.”
“Yes, discrimination in the tech industry is a real thing. Whether for race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, age or gender, nearly a quarter of 1,002 tech workers surveyed in December by job site Indeed complained about unfair treatment in their current companies, according to a report out Tuesday. "These results should be seen as a wake-up call to the industry that simply striving to hire diverse talent is not enough -- culture and attitude need to be addressed,"
“With several female heads of state in Central and South America in recent years, and legislation to ensure a minimum of women candidates for Congress, gender inequality in high-level politics has looked set to diminish.”
“The African Union has declared 2010–2020 as the African Women's Decade to accelerate African women's development. However, to achieve the decade's goals, African countries must acknowledge the role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in consolidating human capital…”
“Gender research and gender empowerment, particularly through the increased participation of women in extension services and activities, are recommended components in development initiatives toward achieving gender equality, food security, and improved health in rural populations…”
“This study uses data on educational expenditure, including specific types of educational expenditure, from the 2009 Socioeconomic Survey of Thailand to investigate gender bias in the allocation of educational resources. Empirical Engel’s curves are estimated to test for gender bias. The results show that girls receive more education expenditure than boys. The most likely explanations for this gender bias are: (1) According to the Thai cultural tradition, daughters are expected to be the main caregivers of their elderly parents and (2) wage incomes of daughters are more reliable sources of remittances for parents than the wage incomes of sons.”
“The purpose of Chapter 8 is to examine and apply issues of diversity from a biological, social, gender, cultural, and other factors to the aging experiences of women in the world. If positive aging supports are to be created and implemented in communities and broader societies, it is crucial to better understand the many ways women age over time…”
The purpose of this study is twofold. First, it aims at bridging this information gap, providing a review of evidence that shows how the psychological components of agency, such as aspirations and self-esteem, can effectively contribute to more traditional development objectives-ranging from higher investments in human capital to increased income. Second, the study reviews and synthesizes research on several policy interventions in Peru, which have empowered their beneficiaries. In this way, the study aims to derive practical recommendations on how to incorporate psychological elements of agency into policy interventions in order to achieve better development outcomes.
This study contributes to the current debate on achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), their relevance and what can be done after 2015, by looking at estimates of the cost of reaching the goals in 2015. In particular, it sizes the additional resources needed in developing countries to attain the goals.
This paper complements the findings of Atal, Ñopo and Winder (2009) on gender and ethnic wage gaps for 18 Latin American countries circa 2005 by analyzing gender wage gaps for the same countries between circa 1992 and circa 2007. During this span the overall gender earnings gaps dropped about 7 percentage points, while the unexplained component dropped between 3 and 4 percentage points, depending on the control variables used. The gap declined most notably among workers at the bottom of the earnings distribution, with children at home, the self-employed, part-time workers and those in rural areas—the segments of the labor market that were previously reported as having the highest unexplained gender disparities. Most of the reduction in unexplained gaps occurred within segments rather than due to the composition of labor markets. The paper additionally finds a limited role for job tenure in explaining gender wage gaps.
Ellis, Amanda N.; Orlando, María Beatriz; Muñoz Boudet, Ana Maria; Piras, Claudia; Reimao, Maira; Cutura, Jozefina; Frickenstein, Judith; Perez, Ane; de Castro, Orsi Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), Jan 2010