This paper quantifies the impacts of transport infrastructure investments on economic activity in Haiti, proxied by satellite luminosity data. Our identification strategy exploits the differential timing of rehabilitation projects across various road segments of the primary road network. We combine multiple sources of non-traditional data and carefully address concerns related to unobserved heterogeneity. The results obtained across multiple specifications consistently indicate that receiving a road rehabilitation project leads to an increase in luminosity values between 7 percent and 15 percent at the communal section level. Taking into account the national level elasticity between luminosity values and GDP, we approximate that these interventions translate in GDP increases of around 0.6 percent and 1.2 percent in communal sections that were benefited by a transport project. Findings also uncover some temporal and spatial variation, showing that effects take some time to appear and that it is not the richest or the poorest communities that are gaining from these investments but those in the middle of the income distribution.
This study evaluates the technoeconomic viability of utilizing a fast-growing crop, Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass), to sustainably produce charcoal in Haiti, thereby reducing the harvest of trees, slowing deforestation and driving local economy. The objective of the analysis is to determine the potential for a profitable investment in sustainable charcoal, with profitability defined by net present value (NPV) modeling over a 10-year period. Monte Carlo statistical simulation is employed in computing NPV based on variability in model inputs. Results include a probabilistic NPV that incorporates uncertainty in model inputs and yields an odds-based assessment of the likely profitability of the plant. Results indicate that the plant is likely to yield positive return on capital investment, with a 91% likelihood of the plant breaking even and an 84% likelihood of achieving a 25% return on investment within 10 years. Sensitivity analysis of the model results to model input variability show that charcoal sale price and feedstock cost are the most significant variables that affect plant profitability and profitability uncertainty. Based upon model results, suggestions for improved economic feasibility are presented. Additionally, the broader social and environmental impacts of the proposed venture to reduce deforestation and create local jobs is assessed.
The Development Effectiveness Overview (DEO) is an annual report produced by the IDBG to show the results and impact of its work in Latin America and the Caribbean. It reports on the IDBG's contributions towards the development of its 26 borrowing member countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, holding the IDBG accountable to its shareholders, partners and beneficiaries.
In the face of rapid global urbanization, cities are increasingly at risk from major disasters. While considerable attention has been given to other aspects of urban post‐disaster recovery, less has been dedicated to rubble clearance. This article examines the dynamics of rubble clearance through a study of how the diverse organizations responding to the 2010 Haiti earthquake addressed this issue in Port‐au‐Prince. It draws on interviews with 52 organizations spanning the range of organizational types engaged in recovery efforts. Building on an evaluation of rubble clearance plans developed for other seismically at‐risk cities, the results indicate that organizations in Port‐au‐Prince lacked a shared understanding of who should coordinate, and engage in, this vital activity. The diverse organizations involved in recovery brought widely diverging norms concerning rubble clearance to a context with weak plans in place for this task. The outcome was uncoordinated action and slow progress. The article draws on the literature on interorganizational norms to contextualize its findings from Port‐au‐Prince. It concludes by arguing for efforts to generate new, shared norms concerning who should lead urban rubble clearance and, in particular, for greater support for, and deference to, local plans around this issue. Such plans would enable governments to establish robust protocols to coordinate action on this increasingly important challenge for cities.
Haiti’s catastrophic earthquake of 2010 left approximately 200,000 people dead, 1.5 million homeless and most government buildings destroyed. Even pre-disaster, Haiti’s outcomes on the UN Human Development Index were among the lowest in the world, and since the quake the country has fallen into further decline. Today, most Haitians continue to lack basic services, struggle with daily survival, and confront daunting challenges in their change efforts. Many have called for reconstruction of society, and argue that local civil society organizations should lead the way in these efforts by valuing local knowledge, and building on small-scale community successes. This research investigates one community’s change efforts toward a new form of community development and potential pathway to transformation in Haiti. We aim to apply learning from this case to inform development practice and policy in Haiti and similar contexts.
There have been estimates that over 150,000 Haitian children are living in servitude. Child domestic servants who perform unpaid labor are referred to as “restavèks.” Restavèks are often stigmatized, prohibited from attending school, and isolated from family placing them at higher risk for experiencing violence. In the absence of national data on the experiences of restavèks in Haiti, the study objective was to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of restavèks in Haiti and to assess their experiences of violence in childhood.
The cost of traumatic injury is unknown in Haiti. This study aims to examine the burden of traumatic injury of patients treated and evaluated at a trauma hospital in the capital city of Port-au-Prince.
Haiti has the highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the Americas, with an estimated prevalence of 254 per 100 000 population. The Haitian Group for the Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (Groupe Haïtien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes, GHESKIO) conducted active case finding (ACF) for TB at the household level in nine slums in Port-au-Prince.
As cholera spread from Haiti to the Dominican Republic, Haitian migrants, a largely undocumented and stigmatized population in Dominican society, became a focus of public health concern. Concurrent to the epidemic, the Dominican legislature enacted new documentation requirements. This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study of anti-Haitian stigma in the Dominican Republic from June to August 2012. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with Haitian and Dominican community members. Five in-depth interviews were held with key informants in the migration policy sector. Theoretical frameworks of stigma's moral experience guided the analysis of how cholera was perceived, ways in which blame was assigned and felt and the relationship between documentation and healthcare access. In FGDs, both Haitians and Dominicans expressed fear of cholera and underscored the importance of public health messages to prevent the epidemic's spread. However, health messages also figured into experiences of stigma and rationales for blame. For Dominicans, failure to follow public health advice justified the blame of Haitians and seemed to confirm anti-Haitian sentiments. Haitians communicated a sense of powerlessness to follow public health messages given structural constraints like lack of safe water and sanitation, difficulty accessing healthcare and lack of documentation. In effect, by making documentation more difficult to obtain, the migration policy undermined cholera programs and contributed to ongoing processes of moral disqualification. Efforts to eliminate cholera from the island should consider how policy and stigma can undermine public health campaigns and further jeopardize the everyday ‘being-in-the-world’ of vulnerable groups.
" Developing countries carry the greatest burden of sepsis, yet few descriptive data exist from the Western Hemisphere. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to elucidate the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of sepsis at an urban referral hospital in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.”
"Biomass is the predominant cooking fuel in Haiti, where it creates burdens on both the environment and the Haitian people. Following the 2010 earthquake in Port-au-Prince, the need for fuel-efficient cookstoves was acute. Although several organizations were quite interested in dissemination of fuel-efficient stoves in the relief effort, there was little knowledge about the performance and usability of the proposed stoves...”
"Considering institutional and geographic explanations for economic development, the institutional thesis is relevant to explain the historically weak governance structure, even as there has been robust foreign assistance efforts for development in recent years. Taken together, the weak role of the state and low levels of human development, are evidence of the challenges…”
Gonaives, in the Artibonite region, is one of the most affected areas by the cholera epidemic in Haiti. Five years on, the epidemic persists and further information is needed to guide water and sanitation strategies for cholera elimination.
June 5, 2013
Les deux Présidents des républiques de l’île Hispaniola, Michel Joseph Martelly et son homologue dominicain Danilo Medina, se sont retrouvés sur la frontière à Ouanaminthe ce mercredi 5 juin pour célébrer ensemble la journée mondiale de l’environnement.