This report provides a case study for the development of sustainable energy lending in Ukraine. It reviews the macro-economic and political context for green investments in Ukraine, before looking in more detail at the role and capacity of the banking sector. The study is part of a wider OECD project promoting access to private finance for green investments in the EU Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries, and follows on from a regional assessment undertaken in 2015. This work forms part of the “Greening Economies in the European Union’s Eastern Neighbourhood” (EaP GREEN) programme, which aims to support the six Eastern Partnership countries to move towards a green economy by decoupling economic growth from environmental degradation and resource depletion.
In 2012, there was a peak in investment in clean-energy technologies in Nicaragua. However, the renewable installed capacity used at that time represented only 12% of the theoretical potential. This prompted the Nicaraguan Government to develop an ambitious national action plan to expand the use of cleaner technologies for electricity generation. Using LEAP and EnergyPLAN, this study simulates the Nicaraguan energy system and provides a prognosis of the outcome of the national action plan by 2030. An additional scenario is created to assess the potential effects of a more intensive use of clean-energy technologies in the Nicaraguan energy system such as biofuels and efficiency measures in the residential sector. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is performed to identify the impact of interest rates and carbon prices on the electricity sector. The study found that focusing efforts solely on the electricity sector is likely to achieve modest changes to the primary energy mix, but no reduction in total GHG emissions by 2030. These findings suggest that decarbonization must take place in the whole energy system and that radical change in the fuels used for transport and cooking are necessary to enable a transition to a smart energy system.
Policies and strategies to develop renewable energy and the rates of successful deployment vary from country to country. Academic literature is rife with examples of recurring problems and malpractice in the implementation of renewable energy projects. We could see each national and sectoral effort as an ‘experiment’ in the early phase of our attempted transition to a low carbon energy system. What lessons can we learn from a comparative analysis of these experiments? This paper seeks to draw generic lessons not from what has gone wrong but from national case studies that stand out in a best way. Through a European academic network, we have selected and analysed 51 ‘smart practice’ case studies of renewable energy development from 20 countries. We present the outcomes of both qualitative and quantitative analysis of these case studies (smart practice criteria) and discuss a set of generic findings concerning specific types of smart practices and problems of potential transferability of projects to other regions. With regards to policy relevance, the findings can be used for evaluating portfolios of renewable energy projects developed to date and for setting guiding principles for project design, spatial planning and consent by means of cross-national learning and fertilization.
In most countries, energy efficiency at the residential level has been largely delegated to the dynamics of real-estate markets after setting a minimum level. This regulatory definition is in certain cases supplemented by energy performance certificates, such as in the case of the European Union. This approach is based on the understanding that avoided energy-consumption costs positively affect the willingness to pay for them, thus leading to higher prices capable of offsetting production costs and thereby encouraging developers. The case of the private housing market in Santiago de Chile was selected as a reference for a developing country in which energy performance certificates, although they exist as an instrument, are not required to be applied in property transactions. However, unlike most of the research performed in developed countries, it is difficult to analyse price formation using methods based on observed preferences in areas in which there are few energy-certified buildings. Using the technique of contingent valuation, such as the method based on stated preferences, enables one to overcome this difficulty. This article investigates willingness to pay for improvements in the energy efficiency of buyers for new homes based on a representative investment/operation cost analysis. This approach has been addressed to open the debate on the convenience of modifying the national construction code and rethinking the energy certification scheme as well as an exploratory study to undercover further research lines to support the aforementioned discussion. The results suggests that there is a number of potential home buyers ready to pay for energy efficiency when they are informed on the cost savings associated to structural modifications and the cost of providing such improvements and such willingness to pay is not monolithic across the respondents, but seems to be influenced by the education level plausibly associated to the purchase power.
Latin American and Caribbean's (LAC) external dependency on fossil fuels and the pursuit for renewable energy leads to the need for a strategy to afford a cleaner and reliable domestic energy supply. Sugarcane presents high photosynthetic efficiency and it is a well-spread crop in LAC. Our study aims to explore the potential of different approaches of modern energy production from sugarcane, at a national level, and its implication to the environmental aspects. We found that Guatemala, Nicaragua and Cuba would be able to replace 10% of the gasoline and about 2–3% of the diesel consumption by only using the current molasses. With a slight expansion on sugarcane production, Bolivia can replace 20% of the gasoline and diesel, besides providing surplus ethanol for exportation or other purposes. With a minor investment, bagasse may enlarge the electricity access in many countries whereas in other may represent an alternative to replace fossil fuel sources. We also found relevant potential on reducing the GHG emissions specially in Bolivia, Paraguay and Nicaragua. However, the implementation of such strategies must be supported by appropriate policies to ensure competitive prices, overcome opportunity costs, and stimulate investments.
This volume explores the geopolitics of renewables: the implications for interstate energy relations of a transition towards renewable energy. Noting the different geographic and technical characteristics of renewable energy systems vis-à-vis those of fossil fuels, it investigates specifically how these might (re)shape strategic realities and policy considerations of producer, consumer, and transit countries and energy-related patterns of cooperation and conflict between them. Focus is on contemporary developments and how they may shape the coming decades. The objective is to establish a comprehensive overview and understanding of the emerging energy game, one that puts the topic on the map and provides practical illustrations of the changes renewables bring to energy geopolitics and specific countries. To this end, a novel analytical framework is introduced that moves from geography and technology to economics and politics and developments are studied on three levels of analysis: (a) the emerging global energy game, winners and losers; (b) regional and bilateral energy relations of established and rising powers; and (c) infrastructure developments and governance responses. This introductory chapter lays the groundwork for a comprehensive overview of contemporary developments by introducing the topic and field of geopolitics of renewables, developing an analytical framework, and posing expectations on what the transition towards renewable energy most likely implies for interstate energy relations.
Nowadays, 84% of the world population without access to electricity is located in rural areas of developing countries. In particular, in the Andean countries, about 10.4 million people lack of access to electricity, mainly in isolated poor regions. Considering the relevance of electricity in overcoming poverty and promoting socioeconomic development, local-regional-national governments, supported by international organizations, are making efforts to achieve full rural electrification. In this regard, renewable microgrid projects are an effective alternative where the national grid extension has limitations. The literature on the design of such projects is significant. However, when evaluating experiences, most works focus on an analysis of projects’ performance from a technical and/or economical point of view. In contrast, very few literature has been reported on the comparison of such experiences from the perspective of the design process itself and how decisions are taken by project developers. In this article, five rural electrification experiences in Andean Countries (Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) are reviewed, analyzing the decisions taken across the design process and showing the suitability of these technologies to extend access to electricity. In the target projects, first, a preliminary analysis is carried out to estimate the energy resources and demand. Next, the system is designed and implemented to meet the demand using the available resources. The five projects illustrate different options for the electrical generation (single, hybrid or combination of technologies), storage (battery or diesel backup) and distribution (microgrid or individual systems), as well as different methods for data gathering and systems design. In addition, a comparison of projects’ real behavior is carried out and their technical performance in terms of energy production and suitability of the technologies implemented is analyzed. These projects can be a good reference for the dissemination of such technologies in future projects in the Andean countries and abroad.
Despite significant natural potential for renewable energy in Argentina and the political intention to generate 8% of electricity from renewable sources by 2017, by 2016 the share was only 1.95%. Although this aggregated picture appears unfavourable, several diverse initiatives promoting the development and application of decentralised renewable energy technologies are in place across the country. The aim of this study is to characterise those initiatives promoting decentralised renewable energy and to assess their potential role in inducing the wider transformation of the Argentinian energy system. To achieve this, we apply conceptualisations for the development of sociotechnical niches and use qualitative research techniques to characterise the sociotechnical dynamics of the decentralised renewable energy sector in Argentina. A niche in an advanced stage of development, in which lessons are systematically aggregated in networks, was identified and examples of generic lessons being used to frame new projects or programmes were also found. In addition to considering the internal niche development processes, we investigate how external factors affect the development of the niche. Finally, we suggest two possible development pathways by which the niche might exert stronger influence on the broader sustainability transformation of the Argentinian power system.
The observing and metering processes are necessary in renewable energy conversion systems as applied in smart grid applications of conventional grid. In this study, the requirements of the renewable energy sources examined with a solar microgrid model that is developed via Matlab/Simulink. The dc-ac conversion system utilized in this paper contains three solar power plants with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system and a multilevel inverter to create three-phase ac line voltages. The transmission line is modeled at the output of the inverter with a length of 25 km by using real line parameters. The infrastructure of power line communication (PLC) is managed by binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modems that are located in different places. The usage of the proposed energy monitoring technique eliminates additional monitoring costs due to the fact that the power lines are not only exploited to carry the generated voltage, but also utilized to convey the drawn power rate of loads at the back-end of the microgrid.
Fiji is an island country with just over 300 small islands and approximately 853,000 people. It is a small island developing state (SIDS) that is heavily dependent on imported fossil fuel for its energy needs. The paper attempts to determine the past and current energy situation in Fiji, challenges faced and strategizes to overcome these challenges. In 2014, Fiji generated 859 GW h of grid electricity from 259.8 MW of power plants. Here, 45.4% of grid electricity was produced by hydro, 50.9% by diesel generators and the remaining by biomass. However, Fiji's transport sector is completely dependent on fossil fuels with fuel import bill equivalent to an average 58% of export earnings and taking up 21% of total import bill. The smallness of Fiji and dispersed islands within Fiji group leads to many challenges to have accessible, affordable and sustainable energy supply. These challenges are comprehensively discussed in this paper. Strategies such as increasing private-public partnership in renewable energy projects, changing customer behavior, setting up a credible feed-in tariff structure, developing locally owned business in renewable energy and energy efficiency, setting up of risk mitigation facilities and strengthening institutions supporting energy sector are discussed to overcome or minimize challenges.
Basic electric service is essential to sustainable development, yet for remote rural areas, connecting to an electric grid can be economically and geographically unfeasible. Firms have sought to bring basic electric service to isolated and impoverished rural areas using off-grid solar lights and solar home systems, but often meet challenges common to base of the pyramid (BOP) markets. This article examines the intersection of theories related to successful business models for enterprises serving the base of the pyramid and studies of off-grid renewable energy enterprises. It identifies relevant and overlapping themes, and creates a framework for a successful business model that includes four primary components: community interaction; partnerships; local capacity building; and addressing barriers unique to the off-grid market, including financing, education, and development of distribution networks.
In the current era of sustainable development, energy planning has become complex due to the involvement of multiple benchmarks like technical, social, economic and environmental. This in turn puts major constraints for decision makers to optimize energy alternatives independently and discretely especially in case of rural communities. In addition, topographical limitations concerning renewable energy systems which are mostly distributed in nature, the energy planning becomes more complicated. In such cases, decision analysis plays a vital role for designing such systems by considering various criteria and objectives even at disintegrated levels of electrification. Multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) is a branch of operational research dealing with finding optimal results in complex scenarios including various indicators, conflicting objectives and criteria. This tool is becoming popular in the field of energy planning due to the flexibility it provides to the decision makers to take decisions while considering all the criteria and objectives simultaneously. This article develops an insight into various MCDM techniques, progress made by considering renewable energy applications over MCDM methods and future prospects in this area. An extensive review in the sphere of sustainable energy has been performed by utilizing MCDM technique.