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Public Management / Gestión Pública: Innovación y Gobierno Centrado en el Ciudadano
Motivated by the multiple ‘success stories’ of the open innovation paradigm in the private sector, and also by the increasing complexity of social problems and needs, the public sector has started moving in this direction, attempting to exploit the extensive knowledge of citizens for the development of innovations in public policies and services. As the direct transfer of open innovation methods from the private sector to the public sector is not possible, it is necessary to develop effective ‘citizen-sourcing’ methods, which address the specific needs of the public sector, and then analyze and evaluate them from various political and management sciences' perspectives. This paper makes a two-fold contribution in this direction: i) It evaluates a novel method of monitoring relevant social media (e.g. political blogs, news websites, and also Facebook, Twitter, etc. accounts) by government agencies, by retrieving and making advanced processing of their content, and extracting from it external knowledge about specific domains of government activity or public policies of interest, in order to promote and support open innovation; ii) For this purpose it develops a multi-perspective evaluation framework, based on sound theoretical foundations from the political and management sciences, which can be of wide applicability; it includes three evaluation perspectives: a political perspective (based on the ‘wicked’ social problems theory from the political sciences), a crowd-sourcing perspective (based on previous management sciences research on crowd-sourcing) and a diffusion perspective (based on Roger's diffusion of innovation theory from management sciences). The above evaluation provides interesting insights into this novel method of promoting and supporting open innovation in the public sector through social media monitoring, revealing its capabilities and strengths, and at the same time its problems and weaknesses as well, and also ways/interventions for addressing the latter.
This article offers an overview of the conceptual, substantive, and practical issues surrounding “big data” to provide one perspective on how the field of public affairs can successfully cope with the big data revolution. Big data in public affairs refers to a combination of administrative data collected through traditional means and large-scale data sets created by sensors, computer networks, or individuals as they use the Internet. In public affairs, new opportunities for real-time insights into behavioral patterns are emerging but are bound by safeguards limiting government reach through the restriction of the collection and analysis of these data. To address both the opportunities and challenges of this emerging phenomenon, the authors first review the evolving canon of big data articles across related fields. Second, they derive a working definition of big data in public affairs. Third, they review the methodological and analytic challenges of using big data in public affairs scholarship and practice. The article concludes with implications for public affairs.
Service innovation acts as society's engine of renewal and provides the necessary catalyst for the service sector's economic growth. Despite service innovation's importance, the concept remains fuzzy and poorly defined. Building on an extensive and systematic review of 1046 academic articles, this research investigates and explores how service innovation is defined and used in research. Results identify four unique service innovation categorizations emphasizing the following traits: (1) degree of change, (2) type of change, (3) newness, and (4) means of provision. The results show that most research focuses inward and views service innovation as something (only) new to the firm. Interestingly, service innovation categorizations appear to neglect both customer value and financial performance.
This paper explores the relationship between risk and innovation in public services, presenting the state of the literature across different disciplines and the academic and policy literature. It suggests a novel framework to approach risk, emphasising the importance of differentiating between different types of risk and risk management. The paper offers a typology of risk types and management approaches that indicates different effects on the type of public service innovation. It concludes by considering the implications for theory and practice.
In this chapter, we examine service innovation in the public sector. We outline the characteristics of service innovation and the conditions that in the public sector differ from market-based service sectors. We use the concept of innovation capabilities as the core concept for comparing private and public service innovations. Service innovation within public service systems requires some of the same innovation capabilities as market-based service sectors. However, because public service systems are integrated in political systems, other, partly overlapping, innovation capabilities are required. The political system’s lead is a particularity. Innovative co-production with users and the involvement of employees and their bricolage are important capabilities, which we find in both private and public services. Yet, in the public sector, these particular capabilities are related to the fact that employees and ‘users’ (citizens) may be driven by a public ethos towards adding value to the public sphere (Benington 2011) and service providers cannot abstain from delivering a given service if the context becomes wicked or complex. The capability of externalizing some services to external partners and create networks among public and private actors is important for innovation in public services. It involves such elements as being able to specify the services, coordinate public and private interests, create trust among public and private partners and justify externalization and collaboration vis-à-vis citizens.
As governments across the world have decreased in perceived reliability and trust, they now need more stable and continuous tools to communicate with their citizens. In this context, many government agencies are attempting to use social media tools to communicate with the public and promote citizen’s trust. But, few studies have investigated the critical factors and antecedents of trust in government under social media context. Thus, this study empirically analyzes the antecedents and formation of citizen trust and expansion in actual citizen patronage behavior deploying structural equation model. The survey data was obtained from Korean population who used government’s social media service. The results indicate that the formation of citizen trust in the government can be expanded into patronage intention toward social media and actual behavior. This study also demonstrates that factors related institutional-based trust, characteristic-based trust, and process based trust contribute to improving trust through government social media services. This study provides contribution as research that discovers the antecedents of trust in government social media use and it employs integrated perspective for the structural components of trust simultaneously.
In public sector transformation context, various studies have utilised institutional theory as a lens to explore the institutionalisation process of digital-enabled services. While institutional theory contributes towards understanding such transformation, limited explanation is offered on the underlying process, undermining the impact of interplay between institutional structure and actors in shaping organisational norms. Structuration theory has overcome this limitation by examining the creation and reproduction of the behaviours supporting formation of norms, through analysis of structures and actors as change agents. Using a systematic literature review, this paper aims to identify existing research that utilise institutional and structuration theories to study the institutionalisation of such transformation in public sector. The literature findings highlight that the scope of existing research is largely limited to the European context, indicating a need to extend the work beyond this.
The influence of the virtual public sphere in the policy process is not only dependent on the power of online media and the stakeholders who are using them. The responsiveness of governments to online policy debate is important as well. While some studies show examples of governments' responsiveness to the virtual public sphere, others find that online participation is largely ignored. Such contrasting findings point at a contingency of governments' responsiveness to online public debate. This article offers a systematic literature review and meta-synthesis of empirical articles that provide insight in the factors accounting for governments' responsiveness to the virtual public sphere. A theory-based analytical framework served as guideline for qualitative analysis of the findings of 39 studies. We found that institutional characteristics, characteristics of the policymaker, characteristics of online participation and characteristics of the policy domain are relevant conditions for governments' responsiveness to the virtual public sphere.
Coproduction of public services means that services are not only delivered by professional and managerial staff in public agencies but also coproduced by citizens and communities. Although recent research on this topic has advanced the debate considerably, there is still no consensus on precisely what coproduction means. This article argues that rather than trying to determine one encompassing definition of the concept, several different types of coproduction can be distinguished. Starting from the classical definitions of Elinor Ostrom and Roger Parks, the article draws on the literature on professionalism, volunteering, and public management to identify the distinctive nature of coproduction and identify basic dimensions on which a typology of coproduction can be constructed. Recognizing different types of coproduction more systematically is a critical step in making research on this phenomenon more comparable and more cumulative.
Purpose: Co-production of public service delivery is believed to foster trust among users, but little empirical work is devoted to this assumption. Public sector organizations have therefore little knowledge about the conditions that determine whether co-production leads to trust.
Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal mixed method is used, following participants of a co-produced activation programme over time (n=60). Quantitative methods are employed to investigate changes in trust levels, whereas qualitative methods are used to explain these changes and explore conditions for trust-building.
Findings: After a half year, trust in the service provider, trust in local government, and generalized trust decreased significantly among co-producing participants. Particularly, a decrease in trust in fellow participants strongly related to decreases in trust in the service provider and generalized trust. Qualitative evidence indicate that motivation during the co-production decreased, as well as personal control. Organizational support and user commitment show to be important conditions for building trust.
Research limitations/implications: The study draws upon a small sample, limiting possibilities for statistical analysis. Also, comparison with other types of service delivery is required to safely assign the effects to co-production.
Originality/value: Longitudinal studies on co-production are rarely performed. Additionally, the findings indicate a more critical approach to the effects of co-production, which are often assumed to be positive for the public sector and citizens.
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report on how public service professionals cope with co-production as a way to produce and develop public services.
Design/methodology/approach: The article draws on the literature of co-production and collaborative public-service innovation. The research approach was an explorative case study, presenting a pilot neighbourhood co-production project.
Findings: Conflicting approaches to co-production with various implications are used simultaneously, causing uncertainly among the professional co-producers. When moving from rhetoric to practice there seems to be a lack of tools and methods for applying and utilising the possibilities of co-production. The processes of co-production and their implications should be thoroughly understood and managed throughout public service organisations, from politicians to frontline workers.
Practical implications: The article demonstrates that co-production calls for renewed organisational structures and managerial tools, especially concerning the evaluation of co-production. Focal managerial, organisational, cultural and processual notions for supporting professional co-production are provided.
Originality/value: This article makes an important contribution to the discussion of co-production, examining an important, yet understudied, perspective on public service professionals as co-producers.
Whereas it is assumed that involving users in the delivery of public services yields more positive evaluations of those services, this study shows that levels of satisfaction and trust are not necessarily positively affected by such user co-production. An experimental vignette design among students (n = 174) is used to analyze the differences concerning trust and satisfaction between co-produced and non-co-produced public services. In some cases, the results suggest, co-production actually leads to less satisfaction and trust. This might be explained by the self-serving bias, which states that co-producers take credit for success but blame service providers for failure.
Over the last decades, governments all over the world have tried to take advantage of information and communication technology (ICT) to improve government operations and communication with citizens. Adoption of e-government has increased in most countries, but at the same time, the rate of successful adoption and operation varies from country to country. This article outlines the evolution of ICT in the public sector over the past 25 years. It presents general trends by examining interactions and mutual shaping processes between ICT evolution and several inter-related institutional changes including government operations, public services delivery, citizen participation, policy and decision making, and governance reform. The authors suggest that within a short time period, e-governance has evolved rapidly from rudimentary uses of ICTs as simple tools to support highly structured administrative work to the integration of ICT throughout government operations. The growing use of Web 2.0, social media, and mobile and wireless ICT by citizens can also heavily impact the way public services are delivered and how citizen engagement processes are carried out. However, new management approaches, governance structures, and policy frameworks are still missing, posing a challenge for governments to operate effectively in the age of big data. Generally, developing countries are lagging behind in e-government adoption compared with developed countries. Thus, for developing countries to successfully adopt ICT and try to leapfrog some of the obstacles encountered by early ICT adopters in developed countries, systematic analyses need to be conducted to understand the interactions among stakeholders and ICTs and co-create the institutional environment to lead to a positive impact of ICT on public administration. Only when this relationship is clearly understood can innovative ICTs be seamlessly integrated into the governance structure.
Performance management systems have become a key component of contemporary public administration. However, there has been only limited analysis of the social construction of performance by public managers who are subject to them. This article examines the ways in which public managers create, maintain, and disrupt performance management practices. The authors find that managers make external performance assessments perform for themselves by constantly negotiating boundaries in ways that combine bureaucratic and managerial rationales. The authors argue that the ways in which organizational boundaries are constructed are fundamental to understanding the success or failure of performance management systems and the transformation of managerial ways of thinking about performance into a logic of improvement through which contemporary public sector reforms become embedded.
Local governments benefit from nonelected committees that provide citizen input on important issues. Although these committees offer a valuable tool for policy makers, they suffer from low participation and tend to underrepresent economically disadvantaged citizens. This article reports the results of a randomized survey experiment that evaluated the relative effectiveness of offering social recognition or skills training. The findings show that entreaties to participate premised on gaining social recognition had no effect on willingness to participate and that offers to provide training actually decreased citizens’ willingness to participate, especially among economically disadvantaged citizens. Even though these approaches may hold promise, this particular policy intervention did not live up to that promise. The article concludes with a discussion of the importance of testing policy interventions before wide-scale implementation and the utility of randomized experiments in this process.
This paper draws on the psychology of risk and “management guru” literature (Huczynski, 2006) to examine how cybersecurity risks are constructed and communicated by cybersecurity specialists. We conduct a rhetorical analysis of ten recent cybersecurity publications ranging from popular media to academic and technical articles. We find most cybersecurity specialists in the popular domain use management guru techniques and manipulate common cognitive limitations in order to over-dramatize and over-simplify cybersecurity risks to critical infrastructure (CI). We argue there is a role for government: to collect, validate and disseminate more data among owners and operators of CI; to adopt institutional arrangements with an eye to moderating exaggerated claims; to reframe the debate as one of trade-offs between threats and opportunities as opposed to one of survival; and, finally, to encourage education programs in order to stimulate a more informed debate over the longer term.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify governmental social media use in in cities with enhanced ICT infrastructures (i.e., Informational World Cities) and high internet penetration rates. Social media platforms are increasingly being used by governments to foster user interaction and we investigate, if social media platforms are valuable tools for reaching high numbers of citizens.
Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on an iterative content and web analysis from November 2012 till January 2013 and offers a comparison of different social media service types and the particular use.
Findings: This empirical investigation of 31 Informational World Cities provides an overview of social media services used for governmental purposes, of their popularity among governments, and of their usage intensity in broadcasting information online. Even cities in a globalized world become more similar we detected a variety in the use of social media by governments, which is due to regional and cultural characteristics.
Research limitations/implications: The findings are limited to calculable data, e.g. number of used social media accounts, posts, and followers which were available through a content and web analysis at the time of investigation.
Practical implications: A more detailed content analysis as well as a more differentiated analysis of users must be conducted in the future.
Originality/value: This paper is one of the first that presents a global comparison of governmental social media use of cities of the knowledge society and compares different social media platforms.
Will "Big Data" supercharge the economy, tyrannize us, or both? Data Exhaust is the definitive primer for everyone who wants to understand all the implications of Big Data, digitally driven innovation, and the accelerating Internet Economy. Renowned digital expert Dale Neef clearly explains:
• What Big Data really is, and what's new and different about it
• How Big Data works, and what you need to know about Big Data technologies
• Where the data is coming from: how Big Data integrates sources ranging from social media to machine sensors, smartphones to financial transactions
• How companies use Big Data analytics to gain a more nuanced, accurate picture of their customers, their own performance, and the newest trends
• How governments and individual citizens can also benefit from Big Data
• How to overcome obstacles to success with Big Data – including poor data that can magnify human error
• A realistic assessment of Big Data threats to employment and personal privacy, now and in the future
The Responsive City is a guide to civic engagement and governance in the digital age that will help leaders link important breakthroughs in technology and data analytics with age-old lessons of small-group community input to create more agile, competitive, and economically resilient cities. Featuring vivid case studies highlighting the work of pioneers in New York, Boston, Chicago and more, the book provides a compelling model for the future of governance. The book will help mayors, chief technology officers, city administrators, agency directors, civic groups and nonprofit leaders break out of current paradigms to collectively address civic problems. The Responsive City is the culmination of research originating from the Data-Smart City Solutions initiative, an ongoing project at Harvard Kennedy School working to catalyze adoption of data projects on the city level. The book is co-authored by Professor Stephen Goldsmith, director of Data-Smart City Solutions at Harvard Kennedy School, and Professor Susan Crawford, co-director of Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet and Society. Former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg penned the book’s foreword.
With the increasing use of web-based mapping applications, inter-mediation between public planning agencies and citizens is changing. This article investigates how one form of inter-mediation, geo-ICT-enabled apps (applications on mobile phones and/or internet that use maps or locations as basic references for any functional analysis), influences the degree of efficiency and participation in managing public space. The theoretical assumption here is that such apps encourage information disclosure and therefore have the potential to make a local government more responsive and transparent. Drawing on observation, interviews, and document and web content analysis conducted as part of a case study, this article suggests that the apps have indeed enhanced one municipality’s response and have made citizens more active in uploading their complaints. However, unexpected and contradictory effects include an increase in trivial complaints, which has made the handling of reports less efficient, and the emergence of opportunistic behaviour by third parties on the basis of the complaints, which has made the services less effective. Consequently, the assumed causal relation between enhanced citizen participation and increased transparency and information disclosure requires an adaptation that incorporates such wicked effects.
Innovation is a core issue for public services and a key element of public services reform – particularly in this age of austerity when policymakers are increasingly urging the need ‘to innovate to do more with less’. This Handbook provides an essential resource for researchers and students interested in this topic and explores its potential contribution to efficient and effective public services. It is the only handbook to review the state of the art in theory and research on innovation in public services and includes contributions from all the leading researchers on the topic from around the world.
This article argues that current public management theory is not fit for purpose—if it ever has been. It argues that it contains two fatal flaws—it focuses on intraorganizational processes at a time when the reality of public services delivery is interorganizational, and it draws upon management theory derived from the experience of the manufacturing sector and which ignores the reality of public services as “services.” The article subsequently argues for a “public service dominant” approach. This not only more accurately reflects the reality of contemporary public management but also draws upon a body of substantive service-dominant theory that is more relevant to public management than the previous manufacturing focus. We argue that this approach makes an innovative contribution to public management theory in the era of the New Public Governance. The article concludes by exploring the implications of this approach in four domains of public management and by setting a research agenda for a public-service dominant theory for the future.
This study examines channel choice and public service delivery in Canada, comparing e-government to traditional service delivery channels such as the phone or visiting a government office. Factors studied include the digital divide, the nature of the citizen interaction with government, public service values, and satisfaction with services received by citizens. These factors are used to determine whether they impacted choice of channel and satisfaction with that channel. This study, through logistic regression of a public opinion survey of Canadian residents, found indications suggesting a digital divide in accessing e-government; found that government websites were most commonly used for information purposes, while the phone was most commonly used to solve problems. In regards to citizens' satisfaction, the apparent digital divide was bridged when females and older Canadians were more satisfied with their contact with a government website. In addition, a positive experience with service delivery and positive public service values lead to greater website satisfaction. The results of this study imply that the phone is a more effective service channel for solving problems, and the website is more effective for getting information. Therefore, governments need to provide multiple contact channels for citizens, depending upon their task at hand, while ensuring consistency of information and service response across channels. Creating a positive experience for citizens when they received a service translates into a more satisfied experience with e-government.
While governments around the world struggle to maintain service levels amid fiscal crises, social innovators are improving social outcomes for citizens by changing the system from within. In Agents of Change, three cutting-edge thinkers and entrepreneurs present case studies of social innovation that have led to significant social change. Drawing on original empirical research in the United States, Canada, Japan, Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands, they examine how ordinary people accomplished extraordinary results.
Sanderijn Cels, Jorrit de Jong, and Frans Nauta offer lively illustrations and insightful interpretations of how innovators, social entrepreneurs, and change agents are dealing with powerful opponents, the burdens of bureaucracy, and the challenge of securing resources and support. With practitioners, scholars, and students of public policy and management in mind, the authors dissect the strategies and tactics that social innovators employ to navigate the risky waters of their institutional environments.
Bureaucratic red tape is timeconsuming and places undue pressure on the citizen. Arre Zuurmond, Lobke van derMeulen and Jorrit de Jong have made it their mission to tackle this problem by placing citizens in the centre of the process, but realise that there is more than meets the eye.
This report analyses the partnerships that governments form with citizens, users and CSOs in order to innovate and deliver improved public service outcomes. These approaches can offer creative policy responses that enable governments to provide better public services in times of fiscal constraints. Although co production and citizens’ involvement are still in the developmental stage in many countries, early efforts appear to lead to cost reductions, better service quality and improved user satisfaction. This report identifies the risks of citizen and user involvement in service delivery, and the barriers that must be overcome to make these mode.
Expecting substantial savings and improved public services – a trend further accentuated by the financial and economic crisis beginning in 2008 – OECD countries have invested in the development of e-government services over the past 10-15 years. However, despite the initial exceptional take-up, governments later saw low adoption and low use of e-government services which are still far from satisfactory today.
This report gives a broad description of the shift in governments' focus on e-government development – from a government-centric to a user-centric approach. It gives a comprehensive overview of challenges to user take-up of e-government services in OECD countries and of the different types of approaches to improving it. The monitoring and evaluation of user take-up are also discussed, including the existence of formal measurement frameworks. Good practices are presented to illustrate the different concrete approaches used by OECD countries.
Complex policy issues cannot be solved by government alone. Delivering high-quality public services at the least cost and achieving shared public policy goals requires innovative approaches and greater involvement of citizens. This book is a valuable source of information on government performance in fostering open and inclusive policy making in 25 countries. It offers rich insights into current practice through 14 in-depth country case studies and 18 opinion pieces from leading civil society and government practitioners. It includes 10 guiding principles to support open and inclusive policy making and service delivery in practice.
Democracies are judged by whether citizens have equal access to public services, economic opportunities, justice, and, of course, participation in the democratic process. Rules and regulations may guarantee this access in theory, but in reality the picture is often very different.
Malfunctioning of institutions in democratic governance creates inequalities of access for a number of reasons, including exclusionary policymaking, insufficient attention to minorities, rationing strategies due to inadequate funding, and inflexible delivery and enforcement systems. The access paradox bedevils democracies: the citizens who most depend on the state to guarantee equal access are often least able to use the proper channels to have their entitlements enforced. The State of Access, edited by Jorrit de Jong and Gowher Rizvi, documents the worrisome gap between principles and practice in democratic governance and presents ideas designed to narrow that gap.
The State of Access is an international collaboration of scholars with diverse expertise. Together they take a cross-disciplinary approach to determining why democracies fail or succeed in creating equal opportunities for all the people. They identify where and why democracies have failed while at the same time recommending steps that may improve the state of access, thus bringing the promise of true democratic governance closer to realization.
Contributors include Bina Agarwal (Delhi University), Maurits Barendrecht (Tilburg University), Jorrit de Jong (Harvard Kennedy School), Peter Kasbergen (Utrecht University), Albert Jan Kruiter (independent researcher), Maaike de Langen (United Nations Development Programme), Michael Lipsky (Georgetown University), Deborah L. Rhode (Stanford University), Susan Rose-Ackerman (Yale University), Gowher Rizvi (University of Virginia), Alexander Schellong (Goethe University), Anwar Shah (World Bank), Guy Stuart (Harvard Kennedy School), and Arre Zuurmond (Delft University).
Over the past decade, the pursuit of citizen-centred service, combined with rapid advances in information and communication technologies, has stimulated innovative approaches to the organizational design of governments' service delivery systems. Service delivery organizations in Canada and elsewhere have taken a variety of organizational forms, thereby providing a range of models for adoption or adaptation. Service Canada offers Canadians a new model for the delivery of government services. It is a one-stop, multi-channel and multi-jurisdictional initiative that is dedicated to delivering seamless citizen-centred service. It brings together a wide range of government programmes and services from across federal departments and other levels of government to provide citizens with integrated, easy-to-access, personalized service. This article assesses the possibilities that the Service Canada model presents for service transformation through integrated service delivery (ISD) and discusses political, structural, operational, managerial and cultural barriers to its implementation.
Points for practitioners
Successful ISD initiatives can take a variety of organizational forms with an array of governance arrangements. While some of the ISD challenges are not faced by all countries, many of the challenges (e.g. privacy and security issues) are of a generic nature. Many of the solutions to ISD challenges are also of general application, including those utilized by Service Canada — the innovative use of partnerships, adequate funding, guaranteed privacy and security and effective human resource management. Note also that successful service transformation requires the creation of a culture of service excellence among employees, the demonstration of frequent and tangible results, and understanding that leadership in service integration requires a capacity for adapting to an ambiguous and ever-changing environment.
Evidence from sixty‐five empirical studies of the determinants of public service performance is critically reviewed. The statistical results are grouped on the basis of five theoretical perspectives: resources, regulation, markets, organization, and management. The analysis suggests that the most likely sources of service improvement are extra resources and better management. A research agenda for further work is identified, and recommendations are made to enhance the theoretical and methodological quality of studies of public service improvement.
O presente estudo tem por finalidade apresentar uma análise da iniciativa liderada pelo Governo do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, denominada MINAS FÁCIL, por encomenda do Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento, no âmbito do seu Projeto Regional Inovações na Gestão Pública para Melhor Prestação de Serviços. O trabalho foi realizado com base em análise documental sobre o tema, e entrevistas junto a diversos atores envolvendo os órgãos públicos.
Este documento es el segundo número de la serie de "Innovaciones en la prestación de servicios públicos" del BID, dedicada a la identificación y el análisis de experiencias innovadoras de destacadas prácticas en ALC y el resto del mundo para mejorar la prestación de los servicios públicos. En esta edición se presenta el caso de la Ley 11/2007 de Acceso Electrónico de los Ciudadanos a los Servicios Públicos de España. Esta ley tuvo un efecto tractor indudable en el desarrollo de la Administración electrónica en el sector público español, fundamentalmente en el ámbito nacional, al establecer un límite temporal obligatorio para su cumplimiento, aunque también en el ámbito autonómico y local al fijar un marco homogéneo de referencia. Como resultado la ley condujo a un aumento significativo de los servicios digitales disponibles en un corto espacio de tiempo. Esta publicación ofrece una visión general de la ley, el análisis de su diseño y ejecución, resultados e impactos, y la identificación de sus factores de éxito y limitaciones. De igual forma, los autores consolidan las lecciones aprendidas de la experiencia española, destacando factores a tener en cuenta al considerar el desarrollo de este tipo de solución.
Las instituciones de Centro de Gobierno, que trabajan directamente con el Jefe del Poder Ejecutivo en cualquier nivel de gobierno, son fundamentales para brindar dirección y coherencia al gobierno, y para asegurar el cumplimiento de sus prioridades y resultados para los ciudadanos. Esta publicación presenta el conocimiento producido por el BID en este tema. Incluye un novedoso marco conceptual sobre la temática, un análisis de las tendencias regionales en el desempeño de Centro de Gobierno en la región, dos estudios de caso de innovaciones recientes a nivel nacional (Chile) y subnacional (Pernambuco, Brasil), así como recomendaciones de política pública basadas en estos análisis y en algunas de las mejores prácticas internacionales. También se presenta una herramienta metodológica (la Matriz de Desarrollo Institucional) que permite a los encargados de la toma de decisiones diagnosticar el desempeño real de las funciones de Centro de Gobierno en sus países, para adaptar iniciativas de reforma a sus contextos y desafíos específicos.
Center of Government institutions, which work directly with the Head of the Executive Branch at any level of government, are essential to provide direction and coherence to the government and to ensure the delivery of its priorities and results for citizens. This publication presents the knowledge produced by the IDB on this topic, and includes a novel conceptual framework on this subject, an analysis of the regional trends of Center of Government performance in the region, two case studies of recent innovations at the national (Chile) and subnational (Pernambuco, Brazil) levels, and policy recommendations based on these analyses and on some of the best international practices. The publication also presents a methodological tool (the Institutional Development Matrix) that allows decision makers to diagnose the actual performance of Center of Government functions in their countries, in order to tailor reform initiatives to their specific context and challenges.
This article makes three contributions to the literature. First, it provides new evidence of the impact of community monitoring interventions using a unique dataset from the Citizen Visible Audit (CVA) program in Colombia. In particular, this article studies the effect of social audits on citizens' assessment of service delivery performance. The second contribution is the introduction a theoretical framework to understand the pathway of change, the necessary building blocks that are needed for social audits to be effective. Using this framework, the third contribution of this article is answering the following questions: i) under what conditions do citizens decide to monitor government activity and ii) under what conditions do governments facilitate citizen engagement and become more accountable.
En esta nota técnica se describen tres procesos innovadores conducidos por gobiernos subnacionales para la mejora de la gestión de trámites para ciudadanos y empresas. Los casos presentados son el "Modelo Colima: innovación integral de servicios en beneficio de ciudadanos" (Colima - México); el "Centro Integral de Servicios" (Puebla - México), y el "Programa
de Soluciones Integrales de la Junta Comercial de Pernambuco" (Pernambuco - Brasil). A partir de la descripción de estos casos se identifican los principales resultados alcanzados por estos gobiernos y su impacto en los ciudadanos y empresas de sus respectivos Estados. Asimismo, se rescatan aspectos que pueden servir de ejemplo para otros gobiernos y se puntualizan algunos de los desafíos que estos procesos innovadores deben afrontar para su consolidación.
A presente nota técnica descreve três processos inovadores realizados e empreendidos por governos subnacionais para melhorar a gestão de procedimentos para cidadãos e empresas. Os casos apresentados são o ¿Modelo Colima: inovação integral de serviços em prol dos cidadãos¿ (Colima, México); o ¿ Centro Integral de Serviços¿ (Puebla, México), e o ¿Programa
de Soluções Integradas da Junta Comercial de Pernambuco¿ (Pernambuco, Brasil). Com base na descrição desses casos, são identificados os principais resultados alcançados por esses governos e seu impacto sobre os cidadãos e empresas de seus estados. Além disso, são abordados aspectos que podem servir de exemplo para outros governos e pontuados alguns dos desafios que esses processos inovadores devem confrontar para a consolidação.
The concept of Open Government has emerged as a new public policy
paradigm. It is a response to the rise of a better-informed and more demanding citizenry, which seeks to influence public service design and
provision. The practical dimension of the components of Open Government, above all those related to citizen participation and collaboration, make implementing this paradigm even more complex. Based on a review of the literature, international evidence, and a specific case of co-design and co-execution of a public service at the local level, this paper analyzes the political challenges that the Open Government model poses. Furthermore, it evaluates the incentives, obstacles, and opportunities that the Open Government agenda in Latin America and the Caribbean will have to tackle if it is to be feasible and successful.
This Technical Note describes and analyzes the management model implemented in 2007 by the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. It discusses the model's main features, as well as how and why it was implemented, and suggests opportunities for improvement and institutionalization. It also presents lessons learned for other subnational governments seeking to improve their performance and achieve results for the citizens. The key innovation of the Pernambuco case is the integration of planning, budgeting, monitoring, and intervention through a management model endorsed by the Governor and steered by the Secretariat of Planning and Management (SEPLAG) as the key player within the Center of Government (CoG). The CoG has set clear priorities and developed approaches and capacities to make adjustments and corrections when obstacles are harming performance. It has also implemented routines and technical tools, which appear to be in the process of becoming institutionalized. At the same time, there is room for improvement, mainly in terms of strengthening the model's focus on outcomes and refreshing some of its key components.
Esta Nota Técnica descreve e analisa o modelo de gestão implantado no governo do estado de Pernambuco desde 2007. Ela descreve as principais características do modelo, a forma e os motivos de sua implantação e sugere oportunidades de melhoria e institucionalização, além de abordar lições aprendidas que podem ser úteis a outros governos subnacionais que pretendam melhorar seu desempenho e alcançar resultados para seus cidadãos. A principal inovação, no caso de Pernambuco, é a integração das atividades de planejamento, orçamento, monitoramento e intervenção, por meio de um modelo liderado a partir do Núcleo Central de Governo. O governo definiu prioridades claras efetivamente acompanhadas e criou abordagens e estruturas para fazer ajustes e correções quando obstáculos estiverem prejudicando o desempenho. Foram adotadas rotinas e ferramentas técnicas que parecem estar em processo de institucionalização. Paralelamente a essas medidas, deixou-se espaço para melhorias, principalmente por meio do fortalecimento do foco do modelo em resultados e da atualização de alguns de seus principais componentes.
The year 2013 has become known as the year of Open Government. The continuing progress of the Open Government Partnership represents the consolidation of a process that, in less than two years, has strengthened the promotion and implementation of public policies. These policies are founded on
the principles of transparency and access to public information, citizen participation, integrity, and the harnessing of technology on behalf of openness and accountability in 63 participating countries. The Latin American and Caribbean region, in particular, stands out with the most widespread participation, including 15 borrowing member countries of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Fourteen of these have action plans in process for the implementation and/or evaluation of these policies, reinforcing
their commitment to open government. Trinidad and Tobago, one of the 15 member countries, will soon present its own action plan. To date, various countries are developing public consultation processes and opportunities for participation for a new two-year period of commitments relating to open government. It is, therefore, worthwhile to review, country-by-country, the commitments that have been carried out and to consider the views expressed by relevant stakeholders. This analysis will further contribute to this emerging domain a new paradigm for public policy and management reform in the 21st century.
New York’s next mayor will need to address a number of critical challenges facing the city. This report spotlights 15 innovative policies from cities across the U.S. and around the globe that could serve as a model.
This report profiles 25 of the best policy innovations from cities across the U.S. and around the globe— giving mayors and other municipal leaders the ability to learn from their peers and develop new policies based on models that have already proven effective.