São Paulo, with its more than 12 million inhabitants (about 20 million including the metropolitan area) is one of the largest urban areas in the world. Due to a heavy reliance on motorized transport, air pollution, physical inactivity and congestion are calling into question the excessive use of private motorized transport and reinforcing the support of sustainable alternatives including cycling. Since 2013, the capital city has seen a six-fold increase in its cycle network, now consisting of more than 400 km of cycle lanes and paths. However, lagging behind the most recent structural developments, is the creation of a corresponding cycling culture. Thus, to provide an up-to-date picture of the current situation faced by cyclists, the present study aimed to investigate the risk perceptions and behaviour among current active commuter cyclists in São Paulo. To this end, an online questionnaire was developed based on consolidated instruments in the field, combining quantitative as well as qualitative measurements, and was completed by 207 active cyclists (45 women, 160 men and two other, 36 years-old). The results showed that there is a general tendency for a higher risk perception among women and high income cyclists, although the only (marginally) significant result was found for the risk of being run over by a car, which was perceived higher among women. Cyclists themselves reported engaging in a variety of risk behaviours ranging from misjudging the speed of approaching cars to ignoring red traffic lights or swerving around pedestrians. Qualitative results suggested that road space remains contested among cyclists and other road users or pedestrians, even in the presence of cycle paths, with a minority of road users disrespecting or even trying to harm cyclists intentionally.
This article discusses the mobility intentions of adolescents in Tirana, Albania – one of the least studied areas of Central and Eastern Europe. The main research question - explored through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) - is whether now, nearly three decades after the demise of state socialism, cars are still considered as a necessity and/or a status symbol among adolescents This group never experienced socialism and its extreme restrictions on car ownership and use. Although Tirana is a very compact city with work, services, and social contacts typically within walking distance, the findings indicate that most adolescents in Tirana, including those who do not particularly like cars and driving, intend to purchase cars and drive in the future. Cars remain a strong status symbol. This does do not bode well for transport sustainability. If unchecked, adolescents’ intentions might directly translate into car-dependent travel behavior in the future.
Autonomous vehicles will radically transform how people and goods are transported around cities. What steps do government leaders need to take to ensure the future of mobility remains safe, clean and accessible for all people?
This report, co-published by the World Economic Forum and The Boston Consulting Group, presents the findings from a three year collaboration that explored how autonomous vehicles could reshape the future of urban mobility. We partnered with the City of Boston to assess the impact of autonomous vehicles in the city, to catalyse testing of autonomous vehicles there and to strategize how the city could foster this technology to achieve its mobility goals.
In addition to our partnership with the city, we conducted consumer research and built a traffic simulation model to understand the effects of autonomous vehicles in the City of Boston. Our findings offer insight and guidance to help both policy-makers and mobility providers reshape urban mobility systems into new versions that are safer, cleaner and more inclusive. As the line between public and private transportation systems in cities becomes increasingly blurred, policy-makers have an opportunity to develop incentives that enhance urban mobility for all city residents, not just the wealthy.
This paper addresses a multi-objective facility location problem, concerning the location of noise-sensitive and noise-generating facilities in urban environments. To promote sustainable solutions, two main criteria are incorporated within the optimisation model: minimising total noise-threshold violation levels and the total system travel time on the underlying road network. A bi-level formulation is proposed, which is eventually re-formulated into a single-level model. The augmented ε-constraint method is implemented to yield non-dominated solutions. A Benders-Decomposition approach is proposed to handle large instances of the problem. Numerical tests highlight the effectiveness of the proposed solution method in designing the layout of urban regions.
Jenny Díaz-Ramirez, Nicolas Giraldo-Peralta, Daniela Flórez-Ceron, Vivian Rangel, Christopher Mejía-Argueta, José Ignacio Huertas, Mario Bernal
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, October 2017
This research identifies key variables that influence fuel consumption that might be improved through eco-driving training programs under three circumstances that have been scarcely studied before: (a) heavy- and medium-duty truck fleets, (b) long-distance freight transport, and (c) the Latin American region. Based on statistical analyses that include multivariate regression of operational variables on fuel consumption, the impacts of an eco-driving training campaign were measured by comparing ex ante and ex post data. Operational variables are grouped into driving errors, trip conditions, driver behavior, driver profile, and vehicle attributes.
The methodology is applied in a freight fleet with nationwide transport operations located in Colombia, where the steepness of its roads plays an important role in fuel consumption. The fleet, composed of 18 trucks, is equipped with state-of-the-art real-time data logger systems. During four months, 517 trips traveling a total distance of 292,512 km and carrying a total of 10,034 tons were analyzed.
The results show a baseline average fuel consumption (FC) of 1.716 liters per ton-100 km. A different logistics performance indicator, which measures FC in liters per ton transported each 100 km, shows an average of 3.115. After the eco-driving campaign, reductions of 6.8% and 5.5% were obtained. Drivers’ experience, driving errors, average speed, and weight-capacity ratio, among others, were found to be highly relevant to FC. In particular, driving errors such as acceleration, braking and speed excesses are the most sensitive to eco-driving training, showing reductions of up to 96% on the average number of events per trip.
José M. López-Martínez, Felipe Jiménez, F. Javier Páez-Ayuso, M. Nuria Flores-Holgado, Angélica N. Arenas, Blanca Arenas-Ramirez, Francisco Aparicio-Izquierdo
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, May 2017
An integrated methodology to estimate the emissions of automotive vehicles is proposed in this work, with application to the vehicle fleet of Madrid Municipal Transport Company. The fleet composed of 2000 buses and 20 different types, operating 167 routes providing a service to the whole of the city of Madrid, with 3.165 million inhabitants and over 404 million passengers in the year 2014. The results of the model have been validated by calculating the fuel consumption and comparing them with the actual consumption, as this is the only data that can be used by taking estimations that are external to the model. The errors found were small and acceptable. Thus, the approach of this work has two features: it uses both measured transport activity data and vehicle activity data with specific emissions models for the calculation of consumption and emissions for a bus fleet based on an urban area; it also has two outcomes: it provides useful information for understanding where and how air pollutants are originated and it is a tool for designing intervention measures.
Airlines are mobile, micro-communities that exhibit varying levels of performance. This paper develops and applies a composite indicator to address a gap in the literature for benchmarking airlines based on aspects of sustainable aviation. First, the concept of aircraft metabolism is developed to relate flows of energy, carbon dioxide emissions, water, and waste with operational outputs, such as the transport of revenue loads. The Sustainable Airline Index is then constructed based on 4 dimensions and 20 indicators to benchmark aircraft metabolism. The dimensions are 1) airline services and quality, 2) fuel consumption and efficiency, 3) carbon dioxide emissions and intensity, and 4) sustainable aviation measures. The index is applied to a sample of 16 airlines based on data from corporate sustainability reporting and annual reports. The results are compared based on six schemes that involve equal or unequal weights with linear or geometric aggregation. Unequal weights are determined based on exploratory factor analysis. The net change in rank among all schemes is 2.3. Monte Carlo experiments are also conducted to rank airlines based on simulated mean values in which the top 4 airlines in the sample are A9, A11, A3 and A15. Airlines that decouple revenue loads from similar increases in resource usage have higher rankings in the composite indicator based on well-rounded performances in aircraft metabolism. The results are applicable to support the carbon neutral growth strategy of the sector and to consider multiple dimensions towards more sustainable practices on the airside of aviation.
The popular consensus is that urban passenger rail is more environmentally friendly than urban passenger bus. This position is largely associated with the key energy source for each mode, respectively electricity and diesel, where electric vehicle use will typically result in local air quality improvements away from the electricity generation source. Surveys of community perceptions reflect this sentiment; however the relationship between the source of energy and its resultant emissions is not something that citizens fully understand. There is a general lack of awareness of the resource base of much of electricity generation in some countries. Where generation sources are suitably renewable or low-carbon, electricity use will offer greenhouse gas abatement potential. However, in countries which still rely heavily on coal-fired power stations, such as Australia, abatement is not as assured and estimating emission outcomes can require careful assessment. Supporters of alternatives to diesel use can focus on the future supply of fossil-fuels, an argument which has merit; however such arguments are often confounded with environmental qualities related to local air pollution and enhanced greenhouse gas emissions. This paper takes a close look at the greenhouse emissions that are associated with urban rail and bus in Australia. Estimated intensities, when presented in the context of effective service delivery (primarily in terms of emissions per passenger kilometre), raise questions about the distortions that are present in the widespread promotion in Australia (at least) of rail as a more environmentally friendly and hence a sustainable mode of urban passenger transport than bus.
This article attempts to identify and analyse the dynamics and mechanisms of urban transformation in Istanbul using the case study of three mega-projects currently underway - the Third Bridge (officially named Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge), the Third Airport, and Kanal Istanbul. Connected via the Northern Marmara Motorway, these independent projects could also be perceived as parts of a big mega-project - shaping a new city in the north of Istanbul. Triggered by goals defined by the national development document “Vision 2023”, and supported by the intensified construction industry, rapid urban growth multiplies a number of challenges and discrepancies between the official vision of progress and professional estimations of its possible outcomes. Consequently, the article gives an insight into the contextual background of the selected projects and the mechanisms of their implementation, whilst focusing on three fields of estimated impacts (urban structure, environment/ecology and community). The mega projects are identified as strategic instruments and agents of change in achieving the anticipated vision of growth, whilst the low level of their general sustainability represents one of the main concerns and drawbacks in both public and professional acceptance of them.
This research was aimed at exploring levels of equity in accessibility to employment and education in the city-region of Bogotá, Colombia's capital city. Building on consolidated methodologies for the assessment of potential accessibility, we estimate accessibility indicators at the zone level, evaluate how potential accessibility varies among income groups, and present evidence related to transport mode, in order to analyze social and spatial inequalities produced by the distribution of accessibility to employment and education activities. The research incorporates a method to evaluate how accessibility varies among zones according to average income and mode of transport in order to produce evidence-based arguments that can inform transport policy in the city-region of Bogotá, and other similar contexts in the Global South. Our results show strong distributional effects of the socio-spatial and economic structure of the city-region, its transport infrastructure and services, and the effect of current transport and land-use policies for citizens of different income groups. The tools and empirical evidence in this research seek to contribute to informed policy development in Latin America and other developing contexts, and feeding current debates on the role of accessibility in addressing social and spatial inequalities stemming from urban mobility.
Automated vehicles represent a technology that promises to increase mobility for many groups, including the senior population (those over age 65) but also for non-drivers and people with medical conditions. This paper estimates bounds on the potential increases in travel in a fully automated vehicle environment due to an increase in mobility from the non-driving and senior populations and people with travel-restrictive medical conditions. In addition, these bounding estimates indicate which of these demographics could have the greatest increases in annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and highlight those age groups and genders within these populations that could contribute the most to the VMT increases. The data source is the 2009 National Household Transportation Survey (NHTS), which provides information on travel characteristics of the U.S. population. The changes to light-duty VMT are estimated by creating and examining three possible travel demand wedges. In demand wedge one, non-drivers are assumed to travel as much as the drivers within each age group and gender. Demand wedge two assumes that the driving elderly (those over age 65) without medical conditions will travel as much as a younger population within each gender. Demand wedge three makes the assumption that working age adult drivers (19–64) with medical conditions will travel as much as working age adults without medical conditions within each gender, while the driving elderly with medical any travel-restrictive conditions will travel as much as a younger demographic within each gender in a fully automated vehicle environment. The combination of the results from all three demand wedges represents an upper bound of 295 billion miles or a 14% increase in annual light-duty VMT for the US population 19 and older. Since traveling has other costs besides driving effort, these estimates serve to bound the potential increase from these populations to inform the scope of the challenges, rather than forecast specific VMT scenarios.
In this paper, considering the sever impact of road infrastructures on both the surrounding environment as well as on the consumption of locally available natural resources, different road construction techniques have been studied and compared, in order to be able to rank the best solution in terms of environmental sustainability. For the aims of this study, a Life Cycle Analysis has been carried out on a road infrastructure with the most representative geometrical characteristics among those widely used in Italy, in suburban areas, with the help of an appropriate software, the PaLATE. The environmental effects due to both the use of recycled materials, such as the Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) from dismissing of damaged pavement layers, and the reuse of fine soil from excavation, traditionally sent to landfill, has been studied. The latter is possible thanks to lime stabilization of clayey soils, that allows to reduce the need of transport to the dump as well as the need for non-renewable natural resources for road subgrades and embankments. The results here obtained show how the use of RAP, can lead to a significant reduction in pollutant emissions and energy consumption compared to that due to pavements constructed with virgin material only. A similar observation can be made for fine soils stabilized (in situ) with lime: it is demonstrated that this technique is able not only to significantly improve the mechanical properties of useless soils that, otherwise, would be considered as a waste to be dumped but also to provide considerable environmental benefits. Finally, in order to identify a criterion for achieving lower generalized costs in the whole life cycle of a road, the different construction options have been estimated in terms of total direct costs, assessed as the sum of construction and maintenance costs. It has been verified that the use of sustainable construction techniques (RAP and lime stabilization of clayey soils) can lead to the reduction of total cost and thus allows allocating greater financial resources to perform an “ideal” maintenance plan.
Using the City of Paris as a case study, this article makes a case for employing clear indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable urban transport plans. The article assesses the extent to which transport sustainability targets have been achieved, and whether the existing evaluations have been adequate. In addition to exploring the case study, the article addresses a meta-question: Which set of indicators is the most appropriate to evaluate transport sustainability achievements in a large and complex city like Paris? The flexible analytical framework constructed here can serve as an evaluation template for other, similar places.
The IRTAD Road Safety Annual Report 2016 provides an overview for road safety performance for 2014 in 40 countries, with preliminary data for 2015, and detailed reports for each country. It includes tables with cross country comparisons on key safety indicators.
The report outlines the most recent safety data in IRTAD countries, including detailed analysis by road user, age group and type of road. It describes the crash data collection process in IRTAD countries, the road safety strategies and targets in place and information on recent trends in speeding, drink-driving and other aspects of road user behaviour.
New Zealand’s greenhouse gas emissions profile is somewhat different from many highly urbanised countries. Just under half of greenhouse gas emissions are associated with agriculture, with much less from transport. However, transport-related greenhouse gas emissions have increased rapidly and at a faster rate than most other sources since 1990. The challenge for New Zealand (and many other countries) is to promote forms of transport which do not contribute to that increase, whilst at the same time ensuring that the residents outside main urban centres have access to employment, education, health, business and other services that may be at some distance. Research into travel by residents of small towns in New Zealand suggests flexible shared transport has considerable potential to enhance the social and economic well-being of the population in small towns and cities. It can enable residents to travel to larger regional centres for necessary services at the same whilst reducing the energy use associated with single occupant vehicles. New digital platforms offer scope for flexible shared transport to overcome the barriers faced by many public transport providers. Therefore, transport policy-makers and planners need to see flexible transport as a key element in a low carbon, socially and economically inclusive transport system, and actively support its expansion.
The importance of good logistics performance for low/no fossil-carbon economies is widely recognized, especially because the transport sector is responsible for a substantial portion of the world's greenhouse gas emissions. This research evaluates efficiency in the relationship between transport logistics performance, as measured by the Logistics Performance Index (LPI), and CO2 emissions from the transport sector. The slacks-based measure (SBM) of the data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to construct a low carbon logistics performance index (LCLPI) ranking a group of 104 countries that were selected using the available data. The empirical model adopted one input (CO2 emissions for the transport sector) and seven outputs (gross domestic product [GDP] and the six components of the LPI). GDP has been included as a non-discretionary output because CO2 emissions are directly dependent on a country's economic production, while the LPI is a qualifier. To evaluate how the composite index evolved over time, we used an approach that combines the techniques of window analysis and the Malmquist index. Considering the DEA results, the countries that performed best in terms of the LCLPI were Japan, Germany, Togo, Benin, and the United States and the more evolved countries were Luxemburg, Ireland, Lebanon, and Honduras. For the purposes of LCLPI validation and analysis, the performances of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries were analyzed, especially China, which is the world's second largest CO2 emitter. The proposed composite index and the ranking of countries in terms of logistics performance and CO2emissions can help identify the best performing countries in low carbon logistics.
Safety and efficiency are commonly regarded as two significant performance indicators of transportation systems. In practice, road network planning has focused on road capacity and transport efficiency whereas the safety level of a road network has received little attention in the planning stage. This study develops a Bayesian hierarchical joint model for road network safety evaluation to help planners take traffic safety into account when planning a road network. The proposed model establishes relationships between road network risk and micro-level variables related to road entities and traffic volume, as well as socioeconomic, trip generation and network density variables at macro level which are generally used for long term transportation plans. In addition, network spatial correlation between intersections and their connected road segments is also considered in the model.
A road network is elaborately selected in order to compare the proposed hierarchical joint model with a previous joint model and a negative binomial model. According to the results of the model comparison, the hierarchical joint model outperforms the joint model and negative binomial model in terms of the goodness-of-fit and predictive performance, which indicates the reasonableness of considering the hierarchical data structure in crash prediction and analysis. Moreover, both random effects at the TAZ level and the spatial correlation between intersections and their adjacent segments are found to be significant, supporting the employment of the hierarchical joint model as an alternative in road-network-level safety modeling as well.
Road safety strategies (generally called Strategic Highway Safety Plans in the USA) provide essential guidance for actions to improve road safety, but often lack a conceptual framework that is comprehensive, systems theory based, and underpinned by evidence from research and practice. This paper aims to incorporate all components, policy tools by which they are changed, and the general interactions between them. A framework of nine mutually interacting components that contribute to crashes and ten generic policy tools which can be applied to reduce the outcomes of these crashes was developed and used to assess 58 road safety strategies from 22 countries across 15 years. The work identifies the policy tools that are most and least widely applied to components, highlighting the potential for improvements to any individual road safety strategy, and the potential strengths and weaknesses of road safety strategies in general. The framework also provides guidance for the development of new road safety strategies, identifying potential consequences of policy tool based measures with regard to exposure and risk, useful for both mobility and safety objectives.
Following a Supreme Court of India directive, the bus fleet of the Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) was converted to run on compressed natural gas (CNG) from around 1999 to 2000, to address the city's air pollution. We critically evaluate the operational and financial performance of DTC's bus fleet from 1989–90 to 2010–11 – that is, from ten years prior to CNG implementation until 10 years after – to assess how this performance was affected by the fuel switch, as well as the introduction of low-floor CNG buses.
CNG implementation caused a significant reduction in the capacity to deliver transit service at DTC in the initial stages of the fuel transition. Also, it necessitated investments in buses at a considerable cost premium relative to their diesel counterparts. Operating costs per kilometre grew, due to increased fuel expenditures per kilometre, because of the lower fuel economy, and increased maintenance costs and breakdowns per kilometre, on the CNG buses. These costs were further exacerbated by the introduction of the low-floor CNG buses. Despite increased capacity due to the investments in the CNG buses, passenger-kilometres generally declined over our analysis period. As a result, operating costs per passenger-kilometre, and the ratio of operating costs to traffic revenues, have progressively worsened.
We conclude that the financial situation resulting from these effects due to CNG implementation may have detracted from the ability to enhance transit capacity and provide transit service overall. Our study also demonstrates the need to analyze policies such as CNG implementation broadly, in terms of conflicts and trade-offs between environmental, and other (transit operation, socio-economic and equity) objectives, rather than narrowly in terms of only environmental outcomes.
Conflicts inevitably occur in major transport projects as various stakeholders express diverse, often conflicting needs and concerns, and failing to address and manage these conﬂicts often leads to project failures. Understanding stakeholders' perceptions and the discrepancies among them is crucial to an effective dialogue among the parties seeking to build consensus. This study investigates the potential influences of stakeholder characteristics as well as project environments on conflicts and consensuses in stakeholders' overall preferences about sustainable transport projects. Data on the perspectives of three stakeholder-group types (system providers, project designers, and system users) with regard to 14 sustainability criteria are drawn from a survey of eight major transport projects across China. Two-way analysis of variance is then carried out to investigate whether or not the differences in the mean scores among stakeholder-group types and cities were statistically significant. The results show that discrepancies of opinion about transport-project sustainability criteria prevail among stakeholder-group types in every region we studied, due to these types' different needs and concerns. Our findings also suggest that special attention should be given to cases in which multiple stakeholder groups assign the same priorities to certain criteria, as those criteria are likely to represent the most serious issues affecting all stakeholders in a given project environment. With regard to the potential influences of project environments, we found that, in general, the discrepancies in stakeholders' prior concerns about sustainability criteria exhibited no obvious geographic pattern. However, exceptions did occur when a specific criterion was of major concern in a given project environment. Taken together, our findings emphasize the necessity of addressing and managing specific local issues, and the divergent concerns of stakeholders, when planning sustainable-transport projects.
Only a minority of young people in developing countries goes to university. Those who do will probably be the future leaders of their society. Bogotá and Curitiba are known worldwide for their public transport systems based on buses, which introduced unprecedented quality standards for transport in the developing world. But these systems depend on continuous technical improvements and, in particular, backing from political leaders as they compete with other modes of transport for infrastructure and funding. This is especially critical in societies experiencing rapid growth in personal motorized transport, such as Brazil and Colombia. This paper analyses the opinions of university students in Bogotá and Curitiba about their famous pubic transport systems, and compares their opinions with their current mobility practices. The aim was to shed light on the challenges concerning the future status of public transport the two cities are likely to face, which to a certain extend can be considered a forewarning for other cities in developing nations.
On-board real-time emission experiments were conducted on 78 light-duty vehicles in Bogota. Direct emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbons (HC) were measured. The relationship between such emissions and vehicle specific power (VSP) was established. The experimental matrix included both gasoline-powered and retrofit dual fuel (gasoline–natural gas) vehicles. The results confirm that VSP is an appropriate metric to obtain correlations between driving patterns and air pollutant emissions. Ninety-five percent of the time vehicles in Bogota operate in a VSP between −15.2 and 17.7 kW ton−1, and 50% of the time they operate between −2.9 and 1.2 kW ton−1, representing low engine-load and near-idling conditions, respectively. When engines are subjected to higher loads, pollutant emissions increase significantly. This demonstrates the relevance of reviewing smog check programs and command-and-control measures in Latin America, which are widely based on static (i.e., idling) emissions testing. The effect of different driving patterns on the city’s emissions inventory was determined using VSP and numerical simulations. For example, improving vehicle flow and reducing sudden and frequent accelerations could curb annual emissions in Bogota by up to 12% for CO2, 13% for CO and HC, and 24% for NOx. This also represents possible fuel consumption savings of between 35 and 85 million gallons per year and total potential economic benefits of up to 1400 million dollars per year.
In rapidly growing cities the evolution of utility and communication infrastructures has enabled the creation of ‘premium networked spaces’ exclusively for wealthier groups thus deepening already large social inequalities. By the same token, in a context of spatially concentrated income-earning opportunities and other urban functions, as well as limited purchasing power, accessibility to adequate means of connectivity with the rest of the urban fabric can be a determining factor in overcoming conditions of poverty for residents in physically marginal areas.
Within the framework of the splintering urbanism thesis, and using the case study of Soacha, a municipality adjacent to Bogotá, Colombia's capital city, we examine the apparent mismatch between the growth of low-income informal settlements in peripheral locations and the development of transport networks in the period 2000–2010. Our aim is to identify the effects on social and spatial marginalisation of an uneven provision of material infrastructures and services for mobility. We identify central elements in the structure of the networks of connectivity between Bogotá and Soacha, highlighting the main gaps that lead to a fragmented set of connections. We develop a set of criteria for planners and policy makers searching for a more informed analysis of transport supply and policy development practice for poor peripheral populations in similar regions and contexts.
Electric vehicles seem to offer a great potential for sustainable transport development. The Swedish pioneer project GreenCharge Southeast is designed as a cooperative action research approach that aims to explore a roadmap for a fossil-free transport system by 2030 with a focus on electric vehicles. It is the following combination of objectives that puts demand on a new process model adapted for cross-sector and cross-disciplinary cooperation: (i) a fossil-free transport system in Sweden by 2030 and, to avoid sub-optimizations in the transport sector, (ii) assuring that solutions that support (i) also serve other aspects of sustainability in the transport sector and, to avoid that sustainable solutions in the transport sector block sustainable solutions in other sectors, (iii) assuring cohesive creativity across sectors and groups of experts and stakeholders. The new process model was applied in an action-research mode for the exploration of electric vehicles within a fully sustainable transport system to test the functionality of the model in support of its development. To deliver on the above combination of objectives, a framework was needed with principles for sustainability that are universal for any sector as boundary conditions for redesign, and with guidelines for how any organization or sector can create economically feasible step-by-step transition plans. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) is designed to serve such purposes and therefore is embedded into the new process model. The exploration of this new model also helped to identify four interdependent planning perspectives (‘Resource base’, ‘Spatial’, ‘Technical’ and ‘Governance’) that should be represented by the respective experts and stakeholders using the model. In general, the new process model proved helpful by giving diverse stakeholders with various competences and representing various planning perspectives a common, robust, and easy-to-understand goal and a way of working that was adequate for each of their contexts. Furthermore, the evolving process model likely is relevant and useful not only for transport planning and electric vehicles, but for any other societal sector as well and thus for sustainable community planning in general.
This paper examines the historical evolution and geographic biases of the Initiative for the Integration of South America’s Regional Infrastructure (IIRSA). The study presents an analysis of the initiative’s origins in the neoliberalization of Brazilian planning in 1990s; the characteristics of its first round of cross-border infrastructure investments during the 2000–2010 period and its unaltered incorporation into the UNASUR institution, following South America’s recent post-neoliberal transition. The paper conceptualizes IIRSA’s spatial planning framework of ‘integration and development axes’ as an enduring form of neoliberal territorial design. By prioritising public investment in logistics corridors, IIRSA has privileged the global competitiveness of select export sectors over all other infrastructure provision and macro-regional planning considerations. It also aggravates geographically uneven development and fails to reflect extensive urbanization dynamics. The analysis is supported by archival research, a careful reading of policy documents and primary fieldwork conducted in the borderland Brazilian state of Roraima which illustrates the socio-spatial impacts that IIRSA has produced on the ground through its selective roadway development and lack of comprehensive planning in the Guianese Shield Axis – the designated corridor with the lowest level of investment. In addition to presenting a comprehensive empirical assessment of IIRSA, the paper aims to contribute to the literature on the variegated geographies of neoliberalism and emerging debates on planetary urbanization by emphasizing the ways in which state intervention (re)shapes extensive networked infrastructures, which, in turn, condition urbanization processes and inter-urban relations. The paper’s conclusion includes policy recommendations and suggestions for future research.
This paper describes a study of the transport and accessibility needs of residents living in low-income communities in the City of Recife in Brazil. It discusses the theoretical background underpinning the academic and policy rationale for such a study. We outline the qualitative methodological approach, which was adopted to engage in meaningful knowledge exchanges with what are often considered by policymakers to be the ‘hard-to-reach’ citizens of Brazil's favelas. In the exploration of our study results, we describe the complex relationship between the mobilities and livelihoods of the research participants. A key question the paper seeks to examine is how far the restricted mobility and activity patterns of citizens in these low-income communities influences or interacts with their quality of life outcomes in terms of their wealth, health and wellbeing? A second question is whether transport planning and policy can have a role to play in enhancing their future life chances? Currently, transport planners and policymakers in Brazil know very little about the specific accessibility and mobility needs of people living in Brazilian low-income communities. Our aim is to shed some light on the issue of their mobility needs in the context of a wider set of policy discussions about how to protect the livelihoods and wellbeing of low-income populations within rapidly emerging urban economies.
This research study explores three urban planning scenarios for Melbourne, Australia in 2030 and their implications for transport sustainability. As part of the analyses, a transport sustainability index, derived from 10 sustainability indicators, was developed and applied to compare the scenarios. A base-case scenario, an activity-centres scenario, and a fringe-focus scenario were used to consider compact to expanded urban development patterns. The activity-centres scenario, which favours compact development patterns, had the highest transport sustainability index. In contrast, the fringe-focus scenario that significantly expands urban development in the fringe resulted in a lower transport sustainability index. The results of scenario analysis would influence decisions regarding urban development in 2030.
The complex and globalized nature of many industries has led to a global governance deficit that has resulted in the rise of self-regulation by private firms. Despite well-developed body of literature, we know little about the interaction of private regulation and public governance. The questions this paper addresses are: How do private self-regulatory programs either fill a vacuum of regulation or complement existing regulatory structures, and how do these programs support or crowd out the development of government regulatory programs? This paper addresses these questions by developing case studies of internal audit, voluntary reporting, and data analysis programs operated by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). The results suggest that when there is a congruence of goals between industry and government, private regulatory programs can complement or even replace existing public sector regulatory regimes. Additionally, the results suggest that successful private self-regulatory programs can often be threatened by competing public programs.
The relationship between transport, poverty and social exclusion has increasingly held an important place in both research and policy agendas, particularly in industrialised countries. While this has helped consolidate an emerging body of theory concerned with the social consequences of mobility, our understanding of these dynamics in the context of high vulnerability and poverty in the Global South is still relatively undeveloped. Through the case of Soacha, a municipality adjacent to Colombia's capital, Bogotá, this paper explores travel strategies in a context of scarce provision of transport which, when combined with acute conditions of low-income and segregation, limit vulnerable populations' access to the city. The travel practices, perceptions and priorities of low-income populations in deprived areas of the Global South are analysed, using a framework of transport-related social exclusion, to critically examine the elements that play a role in gaining access to the city. The emergence of adaptable methods, relations and transactions between demand and supply that allows deprived populations to reduce their risk of becoming socially excluded show potential for conceptual and practical development in addressing and analysing transport-related social exclusion.